Learners follow the steps for reducing all of the elements of a complex circuit to a single current source and a single source resistance to create a simple circuit. Several examples are given for dc circuits. The conversion between Thevenin and Norton is also presented.

Students view schematics and truth tables that demonstrate how the AND, OR, and Hex Inverter functions are achieved through the use of only NAND gates.

In this interactive activity, students read about the colored stripes on a resistor and interpret the placement of those colors to determine the value of four-band resistors.

Learners read an explanation of the L/R time constant and examine the formula for calculating the instantaneous current value. The current is graphed as it climbs to maximum or drops to zero.